- 2Types of Engines
- 2.11) According to Engine Position
- 2.22) Types According to the Engine Design
- 2.55.) Types According to Number of Strokes
- 2.66) Type of Engines According to Ignition Process
- 2.99) Types of Engine according to the Valve Arrangement
- 3.一種pplications of Engines
E.nare used all over the world for different cars, motorcycles, buses, ships, airplanes, and railway trains, etc. In this article, we will deeply examine different engine types and applications.
一個engineis amechanical machine轉換fuel energyinto機械能and moves thevehicle。在熱力學中，engineis also known as athermal engine那which produces the macroscopic movement of the heat.
It is a fundamental and most crucial part of all vehicles. The vehicles are useless without an engine. Nowadays, it is used in many applications. It is used in many industries topumpwater and in turbines to generate electricity.
Types of Engines
這engine has the following major types:
1) According to Engine Position
i)這rmalor Heat En
它包括最常見的發動機類型。在this type, the fuel combustion process takes place inside the engine.
這y are used in trucks, lawnmowers, helicopters and more. The largestI.C發動機可以生產up to 109,000 horsepower移動可以容納20k容器的船舶。他們將它們的能量從燃燒的燃料中燃燒，該燃料在稱為燃燒室的特殊區域。
這type of engine contains a piston, combustion chamber, compression chamber,fuel pump/fuel injector and a spark plug. They have capability to use different types of fuels like petrol, diesel and gas.
iii)E.xternal Combustion Engines
一個外殼發動機(ECE)includes in the famous types of engines. In these engines, the fuel burning process takes place outside the engine. They store the fuel in a separate cylinder. In some cases, E.C works similarly to I.C but both require heat from burning fuel.
E.lectric engines have three types of electromagnetism: magnetic, piezoelectric, and electrostatic. Magnets, like batteries, are the most widely used. It is based on an interaction of the magnetic fields and the electric current to produce the function.
2) Types According to the Engine Design
一種reciprocating engineis a most common type of engine. It is also known as a piston or “recip” engine. It uses a piston for the compression of the air-fuel mixture. This piston reciprocates upward and downward inside a compression chamber.
活塞的上下運動有助於將燃料能量轉化為機械工作。當活塞壓縮空氣 - 燃料混合物時，混合物的溫度和壓力變得非常高，並且它點燃。產生的功率用於移動車輛。
這se engines have the capability to use different types of fuels such as methane, propane, gasoline, natural gas, and diesel. They are used in many residential, marine, space, and industrial applications such as motorcycles, cars, ships, buses, peak shaving, and railway。
其中一個主要弊端之一reciprocating engineis that it has less thermal efficiency than the Wankel engine.
優點and Disadvantages of Piston Engine:
|這些需要很短的時間來初始啟動。||這maintenance cost of these engines is very high.|
|這y have low costs than jet engines.||這y generate lower-grade heat.|
|這se have moving pistons inside a compression chamber||與旋轉發動機相比，這些發動機具有較低的熱效率。|
這rotary engine使用轉子而不是活塞。任何部分都沒有往複運動。它也被稱為aWankel旋轉發動機。這rotor rotates inside the compression chamber. This rotor compresses the air-fuel mixture and produces power. The resulted power uses to move the vehicle. It has very high thermal efficiency.
這main disadvantages of these engines are that they have a high emission rate, produce less power, and use more fuel. However, they have lightweight and small in size.
優點and缺點of Rotary Engines:
|It has a simple design.||這y have leakage issues which reduce their efficiency.|
|這type of engine has lower parts than the reciprocating engine.||這y have a low life cycle.|
|It has high thermal efficiency.||It needs high maintenance.|
|It has low operational noise and vibration.||它們具有高排放率。|
i) Petrol Engine
這se engines use petrol as a working fluid. Thepetrol engineuses an air and petrol mixture for power generation. Petrol is also a mixture of carbon and hydrogen.
這type of engine has a piston that moves up and down for the suction and compression of the fuel. Firstly, air enters the carburetor, and a fuel injector injects petrol into the carburetor. The carburetor makes a mixture of air and petrol and sends it into the combustion chamber.
一種s the air-petrol mixture enters the combustion chamber, the piston compresses it up to a very high temperature and pressure. But this temperature is not enough that the air-petrol mixture ignites itself. Therefore, a spark plug uses to ignite the compressed air-petrol mixture. This spark plug installs at the top of the combustion chamber.
這stroke of the petrol engine completes more quickly than thediesel engines。它們的效率較低，因為它們具有較少的壓縮比率。
這se are used in multiple applications such as motorboats, aircraft, motorcycles, chainsaws, portable engine generators, and lawn mowers.
優點and缺點of Petrol Engines：
|他們在馬力比柴油方麵有更多的力量。||It has a low compression ratio.|
|It has a low maintenance cost.||它們的生命周期比柴油發動機更低。|
|It has a lower emission rate than diesel.||他們的效率較低。|
ii) Diesel Engine
這diesel engineuses diesel as a working fluid. They are less powerful in terms of horsepower than petrol. Diesel is a light fuel. This fuel has a high cetane number, higher compression ratio, and lower viscosity. In this engine, the air and diesel don’t compress simultaneously.
這re is no need of a spark plug or any other external ignition source because the air-diesel mixture ignites itself due to the high temperature of the air. The final output power uses to run different types of machinery.
|它們具有高熱效率。||這se are less powerful in terms of horsepower.|
|它們具有高壓縮比。||這y are expensive.|
|這se have excellent fuel economy.||柴油燃料昂貴。|
|他們更可靠。||這y need more maintenance costs.|
|這y are best for heavy vehicles and industrial applications.||這y have a complex design.|
這燃氣發動機uses gas as a working fuel. In modern days, these types of engines are used in heavy-duty industrial machinery because they have the capacity to run continuously for a long time. They use oil, kerosene, or gasoline fuel. The gas turbine has two sections:
這gasifier has a壓縮機with multiple blades around the edge of the rotor. When the rotor starts its rotation, a centrifugal force generates which removes the air from between the blades and introduces it into the combustion chamber. Due to this, the air pressure increases in the combustion chamber.
這fuel pumpinjects fuel into the combustion chamber and burns, which further increases the pressure. The final output power uses to run the vehicle.
優點and缺點of Gas Engine：
|It has a low repair cost.||他們的使用壽命低。|
|It has a low maintenance cost.||這y have low thermal efficiency.|
|這type of engine has low harshness, vibration, and noise.||這些有爆炸問題。|
|這y have lightweight and small in size.||它們具有較少的轉售價值。|
一種jet engineuses a thrust force produced by the jet propulsion to move the aircraft forward and helps the plane to fly fast.
When the hot gases strike the turbine blades, the blades extract thermal energy by the hot gases and convert this energy into mechanical energy. Some part of this energy is used to run the壓縮機and the remaining part is sent to the nozzle.
Different types of engines are used奧托周期s。奧托周期is most widely used in petrol engines. In1876那German scientist Nicolas August Otto invented the Otto cycle。這refore, it is known as the “奧托周期” because of the name of its inventor.
這cycle completes a power cycle in four steps (i.e.,two isentropic processesandtwo isochoric processes）。下麵給定的圖表代表奧托循環。
這engines which operate on the Otto cycle have a crankshaft,凸輪軸，活塞，和connecting rod。這piston is used to compress the air-fuel mixture, and the camshaft is used to regulate the opening and closing of the inlet and outlet valves at the right time.
- Isochoric Compression
ii) Diesel Cycle Engine
一種cycle that burns the diesel fuel and generates power due to the combustion process of the diesel fuel is known as adiesel cycle。1897年那Dr. Rudolph Diesel invented the diesel cycle. The diesel engine works on this cycle.
這diesel cycle is also known as aconstant pressure cycle. This is because, in this cycle, the air compresses at constant pressure.
- 一種diabatic compression
- Heat addition at constant pressure
- Isentropic expansion
- Constant volume heat rejection.
在this cycle, firstly, the air is introduced from the environment to the compression cylinder. This cylinder has a piston that reciprocates from TDC (top) to BDC (bottom) and vice versa. As the air introduces, the piston moves upward and compresses the air adiabatically. Line 1 to 2 of the above diagram represents this process.
When the air is compressed according to the requirements, a fuel pump injects diesel which mixes with the compressed air. The air and diesel mixture ignites itself because of the very high temperature of the compressed air (line 2 to 3 represents this process). During this process, the heat is added at constant pressure.
這dual combustion cycleis a combustion of the diesel cycle and the Otto cycle. A Russian-German engineer Gustav Trinkler introduced the dual combination cycle.
這個周期也在四聖完成動力循環eps (i.e., two isochoric and two adiabatic). A Stirling engine is an example of a dual cycle engine.
這cycle has the following processes:
- Isochoric heat addition
- Isothermal Expansion
5.) Types According to Number of Strokes
i) Four Stroke Engine
在裏麵case of the四衝程發動機那a power stroke completes after two revolutions of the crankshaft or four strokes of the piston (i.e., suction, compression, expansion, and exhaust). These engines have petrol and diesel engines types.
One of the major advantages of4.-stroke是它們是環保的，並發出較少的有害氣體。它們具有高於雙程的耐用性和可靠性。然而，與2行程相比，它們具有複雜的設計並產生低功率。
這4衝程發動機s are employed in many applications such as trains, trucks, buses, scooters, and cars.
優點and缺點of Four Stroke Engines:
|這y have high fuel efficiency.||他們有較低的力量。|
|這y have lower operational noise compared to 2-stroke engines.||這se have more parts.|
|4行程發動機的使用壽命多於雙程。||It has a complex design.|
|這y have high durability.||It is expensive than2行程。|
這engine completes a power stroke after one revolution of the crankshaft or two strokes of the piston. In simple words, as the crankshaft completes its one stroke then a power stroke completes and generates power which is used to move the vehicle.
|這y have small size.||這些不是環保的。|
|這se have low costs.||這y have low efficiency.|
|這y have low weight.||High emission rate.|
6) Type of Engines According to Ignition Process
火花塞位於燃燒室的頂部。Si發動機具有火花塞，活塞，燃燒室和曲軸。當空氣汽油混合物進入燃燒室時，活塞將空氣 - 汽油混合物壓縮到非常高的溫度和壓力。
一種s the air-petrol mixture is compressed according to the requirements, a spark plug delivers a fire spark and ignites the mixture. Due to this ignition process, heat is produced, which is used to move the vehicle.
在裏麵CI engine那the fuel and air mixture ignites due to the high compression of the air. It uses diesel as a working fuel. There is no need of a spark plug for the combustion process.
一種single-cylinder engine uses only one cylinder for the compression of the air-fuel mixture.
這y are generally employed for light vehicles such as motorcycles and scooters. The size of the single-cylinder engine is from 250 cc to 300 cc.
這se engines generate one power stroke after two revolutions of the crankshaft. Therefore, three strokes of the piston are used to kill the frictional resistance of the moving parts, and the power of the remaining one stroke uses to move the vehicle. Uneven torque distribution within the cycle causes vibration and rough operation.
這engine also has only one connecting rod and one piston, which rotates with the stationary components to counterbalance their weight. These types of engines also have no mechanical balance. However, by using a counterweight connected with the crankshaft and a very heavy flywheel, the engine reasonably balances, and its momentum creates a relatively stable motion.
ii) Double Cylinder Engine
這double cylinder engine uses two cylinders for the compression of the air. They are most commonly used in tractors. These also use in the DAF of Holland cars and small German automobiles.
他們有一個重量級的和大的尺寸。然而,they have more compression ratio compared to the single-cylinder engines.
- 在-line vertical type
iii) Three-Cylinder Engines
這se types of engines have three cylinders. These three cylinders install in line. The three-cylinder engine is employed in the front-drive cars in which the differential is installed in between the transmission and the engine.
iv) Four-Cylinder Engines
這4.-cylinder engine is mainly used in ordinary cars. These types of engines provide more uniform torque than two-cylinder engines.
v) Six and eight-cylinder Engines
這se types of engines ensure more power and smoother torque. The cylinders of these engines are also settled in the following ways:
在line 6-cylinder and V8 engines are used all over the world for different vehicles. V8 engines have a 90° angle between the rows of the cylinders.
這V8 engines with smaller V-angles have also been introduced in the market, but their valves have a complex operating mechanism.
這V-6 engine contains two rows of the three cylinders that are angled towards each other. However, the crankshaft contains three cranks, and the connecting rods of two opposite rows of cylinders are connected with the same crank pin. Two connecting rods couple with one crank pin.
這cylinders of the twelve-cylinder and sixteen-cylinder engines have the following arrangements:
- Pancake type or V-type has cylinders in two rows.
- Type W has 3 rows of cylinders.
Cars, industrial machineries, trucks, and buses use 12-cylinder and 16-cylinder engines. Ferrari is the only passenger car currently manufactured with a 12-cylinder engine.
(i) Vertical Engines
這cylinders of the vertical engine are installed in a vertical position. Therefore, the pistons also move vertically up and down inside the cylinders, as shown in below given diagram. They have low weight and easy construction.
這cylinders of the horizontal engine are installed in a horizontal position. Therefore, the pistons also move horizontally up and down inside the cylinders, as shown in below given diagram.
It is a type of internal combustion engine. In these types of engines, the cylinder radiates away from the central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. The front view of this type looks like a stylized star. Therefore, it is also known as a “star” engine.
這y were used in aircraft before the development and popularity of gas turbine engines. In the radial engine, the cylinders install in a circle around the crankcase, as shown in the below diagram. This arrangement of the cylinders enables more effective cooling.
在一個V-engine那the cylinders arrange at a fixed angle in the two rows or banks. These two rows have a minimum angle as much as possible to avoid vibrations and balancing issues.
(v) W type Engine
在裏麵se types, the cylinders install in such a way that they make a W type arrangement. All these cylinders are installed in three banks.
(vi) Opposed Cylinder Engine
在裏麵se engines, the cylinders are installed opposite to each other.連接杆and pistons illustrate the same motion. These types work more smoothly compared to other types. They have excellent balancing. However, they have large sizes due to the opposite arrangement of the cylinders.
9) Types of Engine according to the Valve Arrangement
在this L-head configuration, the exhaust valve and suction valve are arranged side by side, and their operation is controlled through a single camshaft. The cylinders and combustion chambers have an inverted L shape. With the exception of the L-head V8 engine, all other engine valves install in a single row.
在l型引擎,安裝的閥機製l inside the cylinder block so that the removal of the cylinder head can be easy when the engine needs servicing. These are very robust and reliable but not best suitable for higher compression ratios applications.
ii) I-head Engines
在裏麵I-head arrangement, the exhaust valve and intake valve install in the cylinder head. In this arrangement, one valve operates to all other valves. The I-head engine is most commonly used in automobiles.
在裏麵case of an in-line engine, the valves install in only one row. However, the valves on a V8 engine can be installed in one or two rows per bank. A camshaft drives all valves, irrespective of their arrangements.
這I-head engines are best for high compression ratios. They can significantly reduce the backlash compared to the L-head engines.
這type is a combination of L-head and I-head engines. The exhaust valve of this valve installs in the block, and the intake valve installs in the cylinder head. A single camshaft regulates the operation of these valves.
iv) T-head Engines
在裏麵se types, the exhaust valve installs at one end while the intake valve installs on the other end. However, it uses two camshafts to operate these valves (i.e., a single camshaft for each valve).
i) Air-Cooled Engines
Maximum types of air-cooled engines have metal covers to guide airflow toward the cylinder to improve cooling. However, they don’t use water for cooling, which stops issues related to cold weather maintenance. They are employed for scooters and motorcycles.
ii) Water Cooled Engines
在this type, water is used for engine cooling. They are used in cranes, buses, trucks, cars, automobiles, and other four-wheelers, and large vehicles. In the cold weather, an anti-freezing agent adds to the water to stop it from freezing.
一種pplications of Engines
- It uses in cars.
- It uses in trucks.
- 這se also use in aircraft.
- It uses in trains.
- It uses in almost all road vehicles like buses, motorcycles, scooters, etc.
- It attaches to a turbine for generating electricity.
- 這y are also used in small machines like generators.
What are types of Engines?
What is engine used for?
這engine uses for the following applications:
- S.cooters and buses
- Hydroelectric power plants
Who invented the first engine?
這first4衝程發動機was designed byNikolaus August Otto1876年。
How to make an engine?
一個engine body is made by a casting process. In this casting process, a molteniron pours in a mold made of sand。一種forging process is used to manufacture the remaining parts. In this forging, an iron lump heats until its color converts into red hot, and then a stamping machine uses to convert this red hot iron into the required shape.
Who invented the first Steam Engine?
在1698那托馬斯保險箱invented the first steam engine.